Bio-physical Interactions in the Turbidity MAXimum


BITMAX Videos and Animations


"Science on the Chesapeake Bay: A BITMAX Program Research Cruise"



BITMAX Home Page

Elizabeth North Home Page

Elizabeth W. North
University of Maryland
Center for Envir. Science

Horn Point Laboratory
Cambridge, MD 21613 USA
(410) 221-8497

This is a 9-minute video of scientific operations on a BITMAX (Bio-physical Interactions in the Turbidity MAXimum) research cruise. BITMAX is an interdisciplinary program designed to investigate how physical conditions in the upper Chesapeake Bay trap sediment, retain zooplankton, create larval fish nursery areas, and influence the survival of juvenile fish like white perch and striped bass. The video does not have audio, so please see the .pdf file "BITMAX Video Narrative" for a written description of the different activities. Teachers and outreach organizations are welcome to request a high resolution version of the video on DVD from Elizabeth North (contact information below).

    BITMAX Video Narrative (.pdf file, 104 KB)

    BITMAX Video: Quicktime, small web version (17 MB)

    BITMAX Video: Quicktime, small web version streaming video, (18 MB)

    BITMAX Video: Quicktime, CD version (26 MB)

    "ETM Hydrodynamic Model: Tidal Motion in Steady State Conditions"
    This is an animation of output from a numerical hydrodynamic model (a computer program) that simulates current velocity, salinity (salt), and sediment concentrations in an estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). ETMs are regions where water is highly turbid (very cloudy). They are often found at the head of estuaries near the salt front where salt water from the ocean meets fresh water from the river. The ETM model, a product of the BITMAX Modeling Group (Drs. Shenn-Yu Chao, Raleigh Hood, Elizabeth North, Lawrence Sanford, UMCES HPL) is based on the code of the Princeton Ocean Model. This animation shows the movement of the salt front (line contours) and the resuspension and deposition of sediment (color contours) as the salt front moves with the tides. River inflow and suspended sediment input are constant, entering the model at the up-estuary boundary (i.e., the left side). No wind is applied to the sea surface. In the animation, arrows show the direction and strength of currents.

    BITMAX Steady State Animation: view animated gif (1.1 MB)

    BITMAX Steady State Animation: view Quicktime movie (5.9 MB)

    "ETM Hydrodynamic Model: Wind Event"
    This is an animation of output from the ETM model (described above) that shows the effect of strong winds on circulation patterns in the ETM. Seaward wind (about 18 mph blowing from left to right) is applied to the water surface from day 351 to 352.5. The wind event causes increased resuspension of sediment as well as movement of the salt front, first down-estuary and then up-estuary. This movement of the salt front in response to strong down-estuary winds has been observed in upper Chesapeake Bay during BITMAX program research cruises.

    BITMAX Wind Event Animation: view animated gif (1.1 MB )

    BITMAX Wind Event Animation: view Quicktime movie (5.9 MB )


Questions, comments?


Please contact:

     Elizabeth W. North
     Assistant Research Scientist
     University of Maryland
     Center for Environmental Science
     Horn Point Laboratory
     P. O. Box 775
     Cambridge, MD 21613  USA